Thursday, December 23, 2010

Cypriot antiquities, Desmond Morris Collection - conflict antiquities from art market

In 1985, Desmond Morris published his collection of the Art of Ancient Cyprus, which he assembled from artefacts available on the international art market between 1967 and 1982 (Morris, 1985: 6).

All of the artefacts in the Desmond Morris Collection were probably looted; and about 1,056 (96.06%) were probably conflict antiquities, looted during the Cyprus Conflict. This may also hint at the state of the international art market during that period.

Data

The Desmond Morris Collection had more than 1,100 artefacts, and was (at least then) the 'largest private collection of ancient Cypriot art outside Cyprus' (ibid.); Morris's book published 585 of them (1).(2)

Of the 585:
  • 1 of the 585 was apparently found outside Cyprus, so I will exclude it from the analysis;
  • 560 of the remaining 584 had no date, and no other information, so they were probably looted (and below, I discuss when);
  • 23 of the 584 had old private collection histories, but no archaeological find-spot information, so they were probably or definitely looted before 1964; and
  • 1 of 584, #292, was probably looted between 1964 and 1974 (precisely, probably between 1967 and 1972), probably from the Turkish Cypriot village of Margi/Marki (3).
Caution

It would be possible to say that, since 23 of the 24 artefacts with some information about the date of their acquisition were probably/definitely acquired before the conflict and 1 of the 24 acquired during the conflict, so around 95.83% of the collection were pre-conflict antiquities and only about 4.17% were conflict antiquities.

However, knowing that all of Morris's acquisitions were from the international art market, and that Morris's earliest acquisition was in 1967, it is fair to assume that any antiquities that did not have private collection histories were not pre-conflict antiquities.

So, in fact, 561 of the 584 (96.06%) were probably looted during the Cyprus Conflict, and only 23 of the 584 (3.94%) were probably looted before the conflict.

Unfortunately, the lack of acquisition dates makes it impossible to work out how many were probably looted during the intracommunal and intercommunal conflict of 1963-1974, and how many were probably looted after the intracommunal, intercommunal and international violence of 1974.

(Also, the lack of find-spots makes it impossible to work out which communities were involved in the looting.)

Nevertheless, again because of the size and sources of Morris's collection, it may serve a different purpose: the collection may serve as a snapshot of the international art market during the conflicts of 1963-1974, and during the most disturbed and destructive period of the post-war Cyprus Conflict, between 1974 and 1982.

Conclusions

Morris bought Cypriot antiquities in order to create a study collection for his interest in the emergence of aesthetics. He recognised a 'duty to make [his collection] accessible to archaeologists' (Morris, 1985: 6).

However, sadly, Morris's collection of (overwhelmingly) conflict antiquities will actually have destroyed much of the information of interest to archaeologists, and to the Cypriot community.

All of the artefacts were probably looted (including the one found outside Cyprus); and (rounding down to "whole artefacts") about 1,056 (96.06%) of the around 1,100 were probably looted during the Cyprus Conflict. That was quite possibly reflective of the contemporary international art market.

Footnotes
  1. 18/603 figures in the text were non-applicable (e.g. close-up photographs of details of art).
  2. So, this study of the 585 is 95% likely to be representative of the (more than) 1,100 (±2.77).
  3. Morris (1985: 269) noted that #292 - the "Oxford Bowl" - was first found on the international (London) art market in 1972, 'thought to have come from Margi, but there was of course no proof of this'.

    Since it was not scientifically excavated, and did not have a private collection history, it was probably recently looted (and that was why there was 'of course no proof' of its find-spot).
Bibliography

Morris, D. 1985: The art of ancient Cyprus, with a check-list of the author’s collection. Oxford: Phaidon Press.

Appendix: Data

1: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 8)
2: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 8)
3: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 8)
4a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 10)
4b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 10)
5: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 10)
6a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 11)
6b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 11)
6c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 11)
7a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 11)
7b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 11)
7c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 11)
8a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 18)
8b: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Bomford Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 18)
8c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 18)
9a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 18)
9b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 18)
9c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 18)
9d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 18)
9e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 18)
10a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 19)
10b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 19)
10c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 19)
10d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 19)
10e: n.d., ‘Bt. of Percy Christian 1897’ (Morris, 1985: 19)
11a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 19)
11b: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Brew Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 19)
11c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 19)
12a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
12b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
12c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
12d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
12e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
13a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
13b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
13c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
13d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
13e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
13f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 22)
14a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
14b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
14c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
14d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
14e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
14f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
15a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
15b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 23)
16a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 24)
16b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 24)
17: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 24)
18: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
19a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
19b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
19c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
19d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
19e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
19f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
19g: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 26)
20a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 27)
20b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 27)
20c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 27)
21a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 27)
21b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 27)
21c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 27)
22a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 30)
22b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 30)
23a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 30)
23b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 30)
23c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 30)
23d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 30)
24a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 31)
24b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 31)
24c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 31)
24d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 31)
24e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 31)
24f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 31)
24g: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 31)
25a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 34)
25b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 34)
25c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 34)
25d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 34)
25e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 34)
25f: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 34)
25g: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 34)
25h: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Brew collection’ (Morris, 1985: 34)
26a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 35)
26b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 35)
26c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 35)
26d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 35)
27: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 35)
28: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 37)
29a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 38)
29b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 38)
30a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 38)
30b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 38)
31a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 39)
31b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 39)
32a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 39)
32b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 39)
32c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 39)
33a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 42)
33b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 42)
33c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 42)
34a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 42)
34b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 42)
34c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 42)
35a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
35b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
35c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
35d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
35e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
35f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
36a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
36b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
36c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
36d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 43)
37a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 44)
37b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 44)
37c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 44)
37d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 44)
37e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 44)
37f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 44)
38: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
39a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
39b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
39c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
39d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
39e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
39f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
39g: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 45)
40a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 46)
40b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 46)
41a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 46)
41b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 46)
41c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 46)
41d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 46)
42a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 47)
42b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 47)
43a: n.d., ‘Inscribed on base: “Lot 293, Cesnola Lawrence Coll. Mar. ‘88”’ (Morris, 1985: 47)
43b: n.d., ‘Inscribed on base: “Cyprus. VA.4.HF”, indicating that this vessel was formerly in the Hugh Fawcett Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 47)
43c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 47)
44a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 50)
44b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 50)
45a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 50)
45b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 50)
46a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 50)
46b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 50)
46c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 50)
47a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 51)
47b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 51)
48a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 51)
48b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 51)
49a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 51)
49b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 51)
49c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 51)
50a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
50b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
50c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
51a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
51b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
51c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
52a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
52b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
52c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 52)
53: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
54: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
55a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
55b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
55c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
56a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
56b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
56c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 53)
57a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 54)
57b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 54)
58a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 54)
58b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 54)
59: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 54)
60: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
61a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
61b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
62a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
62b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
62c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
63a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
63b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
63c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 55)
64a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
64b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
64c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
65a: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 56)
65b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
65c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
66a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
66b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
66c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 56)
67: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 57)
68: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 57)
69: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 57)
70a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
70b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
71a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
71b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
72a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
72b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
72c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
72d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 58)
73a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
73b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
74a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
74b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
74c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
75a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
75b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
75c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 59)
76: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 60)
77: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 60)
78a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 60)
78b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 60)
78c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 60)
78d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 60)
79a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
79b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
79c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
79d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
80a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
80b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
80c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
80d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
81a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
81b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
81c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
81d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 61)
82a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 62)
82b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 62)
83a: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Lawrence Collection, this vessel was first sold at Sotheby’s on 27 April 1892 and again on 23 February 1976’ (Morris, 1985: 62)
83b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 62)
84a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
84b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
84c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
85a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
85b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
85c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
86: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
87: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 63)
88: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 64)
89: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 64)
90: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 64)
91: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 64)
92a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
92b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
92c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
92d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
92e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
93a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
93b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
93c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
94a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
94b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
94c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
95: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
96a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
96b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
97a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
97b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 65)
98a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
98b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
99a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
99b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
100a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
100b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
100c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
100d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 66)
101a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 67)
101b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 67)
102a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 67)
102b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 67)
103a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 67)
103b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 67)
104: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 68)
105a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 68)
105b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 68)
106: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 68)
107: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 68)
108a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
108b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
108c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
109a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
109b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
110: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
111: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
112: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
113: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 69)
114: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 70)
115a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 70)
115b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 70)
116a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 70)
116b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 70)
117a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 70)
117b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 70)
118a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 71)
118b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 71)
119: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 71)
120: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 71)
121a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 71)
121b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 71)
122: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 71)
123a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 72)
123b: n.d., ‘Formerly in the collection of the Rev. V. E. G. Kenna’ (Morris, 1985: 72)
124: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 72)
125a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 72)
125b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 72)
126: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 72)
127: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
128a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
128b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
129: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
130: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
131: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
132: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
133: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
134: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 73)
135a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 74)
135b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 74)
136: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 74)
137: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 74)
138: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 74)
139: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 75)
140: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 75)
141: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 75)
142: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 75)
143: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 75)
144a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 76)
144b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 76)
145a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 76)
145b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 76)
146: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 77)
147a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 77)
147b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 77)
148: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 77)
149: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 77)
150: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 82)
151: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 83)
152: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 84)
153: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 85)
154: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 96)
155: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 96)
156: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 96)
157: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Joseph Mueller Collection, Switzerland’ (Morris, 1985: 98); i.e. Joseph Müller
158a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 99)
158b: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Bomford Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 99)
159a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 99)
159b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 99)
160: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 100)
161: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 100)
162: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 100)
163: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 101)
164: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 101)
165: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 101)
166: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 103)
167a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 103)
167b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 103)
168: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 103)
169: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 106)
170: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 107)
171: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 110)
172: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 111)
173: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 125)
174: n.d., ‘found on Lanzarote in the Canary Islands…. Arrecife Museum, Lanzarote’ (Morris, 1985: 136)
175: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 138)
176a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
176b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
176c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
176d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
176e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
176f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
176g: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
176h: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 141)
177: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 146)
178: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 147)
179: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 147)
180: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 147)
181a: n.d., ‘Lettering in red ink on the back reads: “Lawrence Coll. Sotheby, Lot 525. Apr. 1892. p. 818”’ (Morris, 1985: 150)
181b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 150)
181c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 150)
182a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 150)
182b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 150)
182c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 150)
183a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 151)
183b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 151)
184: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 151)
185: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 154)
186: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 154)
187: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 158)
188a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 159)
188b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 159)
188c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 159)
189a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 159)
189b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 159)
189c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 159)
190a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 165)
190b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 165)
190c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 165)
191: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 168)
192: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 168)
193: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 168)
194: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 170)
195: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 171)
196: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 173)
197: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 173)
198: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 173)
199a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 176)
199b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 176)
199c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 176)
199d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 176)
199e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 176)
200: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 176)
201: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 177)
202a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
202b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
202c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
202d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
202e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
203a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
203b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
204a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
204b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 178)
205a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
205b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
205c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
205d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
205e: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
205f: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
205g: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
206: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 179)
207: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 180)
208: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 180)
209: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 181)
210a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 181)
210b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 181)
211: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 182)
212: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 183)
213: N/A [photograph of male Mesopotamian Fallow Deer] (Morris, 1985: 185)
214: N/A [photograph of female Mesopotamian Fallow Dear] (Morris, 1985: 185)
215: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 186)
216a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 186)
216b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 186)
217a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 187)
217b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 187)
218: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 187)
219: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 191)
220: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 191)
221: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 192)
222: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 194)
223: N/A [photographs of ‘[p]rotective bucrania [charms of horns, skulls, modelled heads]’ (Morris, 1985: 195)
224: n.d., ‘Old label on base indicates that this figure was formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 197)
225: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 198)
226: n.d., ‘Old label on base indicates that this figure was formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 198)
227: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 199)
228: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 199)
229a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 200)
229b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 200)
230: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 200)
231: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 202)
232: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 202)
233a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 203)
233b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 203)
234: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 203)
235: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 206)
236: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 206)
237a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 207)
237b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 207)
238: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 207)
239: n.d., ‘An old label on this figure suggests that it was formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 211)
240: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 212)
241: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 213)
242a: n.d., ‘Both these figures [242a and 242b] were formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 213)
242b: n.d., ‘Both these figures [242a and 242b] were formerly in the Cesnola Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 213)
243: N/A [photograph of a camel] (Morris, 1985: 214)
244: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 215)
245: n.d., ‘Formerly in the collection of Sir Francis Cook’ (Morris, 1985: 217)
246: N/A [photograph of detail of artefact 152] (Morris, 1985: 219)
247: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 221)
248a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 222)
248b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 222)
249: N/A [photograph of detail of artefact 219] (Morris, 1985: 222)
250: N/A [photograph of detail of artefact 156] (Morris, 1985: 223)
251: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 223)
252: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 224)
253a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 224)
253b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 224)
254: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 225)
255: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 225)
256a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 227)
256b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 227)
257a: n.d., ‘Formerly in the Bomford Collection’ (Morris, 1985: 227)
257b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 227)
257c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 227)
257d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 227)
258: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 227)
259: n.d., ‘said to have been found in a fourth-century BC, Cypro-Classical II tomb in Cyprus’ (Morris, 1985: 227)
260: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 228)
261: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 230)
262: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 231)
263: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 235)
264: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 235)
265: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 235)
266: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 236)
267: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 237)
268: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 238)
269: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 238)
270: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 242)
271: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 242)
272: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 242)
273: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 242)
274: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 242)
275: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 243)
276: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 248)
277a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 248)
277b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 248)
278: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 248)
279: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 249)
280: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 249)
281: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 249)
282: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 249)
283a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 249)
283b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 249)
284a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 258)
284b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 258)
285: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 259)
286: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 262)
287: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 263)
288: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 263)
289: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 263)
290: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 266)
291: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 266)
292: ‘The Oxford Bowl was thought to have come from Margi, but there was of course no proof of this’ (Morris, 1985: 269)
293: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
294: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
295: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
296: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
297: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
298: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
299: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
300: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
301: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
302: N/A [photographs of details of artefact 292 (the Oxford Bowl)] (Morris, 1985: 270)
303: N/A [photograph of wooden baking trays] (Morris, 1985: 272)
304a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 344)
304b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 344)
304c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 344)
304d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 344)
305a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
305b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
305c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
305d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
306a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
306b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
306c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
306d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 345)
307a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
307b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
307c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
307d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
308a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
308b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
308c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
308d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 346)
309a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 347)
309b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 347)
310a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 347)
310b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 347)
310c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 347)
310d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 347)
311a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
311b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
312a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
312b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
313a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
313b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
313c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
313d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
314a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
314b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
314c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
314d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 348)
315a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 350)
315b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 350)
316a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 350)
316b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 350)
316c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 350)
316d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 350)
317a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
317b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
317c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
317d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
318a: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
318b: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
318c: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
318d: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 351)
319: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 352)
320: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 352)
321: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 352)
322: n.d., no info (Morris, 1985: 352)

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